Al-Jazira in the northeast and Hawran in the south are important agricultural areas. The coastal mountainous region was also occupied in part by the Nizari Ismailis, the so-called Assassins, who had intermittent confrontations and truces with the Crusader States. [171][172], In April 2017, the U.S. Navy carried out a missile attack against a Syrian air base[173] which had allegedly been used to conduct a chemical weapons attack on Syrian civilians, according to the US government.[174]. [193] Syria's GDP declined by over 3% in 2011,[194] and is expected to further decline by 20% in 2012. According to The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, in addition to Arabic, the following languages are spoken in the country, in order of the number of speakers: Kurdish,[233] Turkish,[233] Neo-Aramaic (four dialects),[233] Circassian,[233] Chechen,[233] Armenian,[233] and finally Greek. [139] Article 3(2) of the 1973 constitution declares Islamic jurisprudence a main source of legislation. The Syrian music scene, in particular that of Damascus, has long been among the Arab world's most important, especially in the field of classical Arab music. [191], Prior to the civil war in 2011, the government hoped to attract new investment in the tourism, natural gas, and service sectors to diversify its economy and reduce its dependence on oil and agriculture. 1. The republic was renamed as the Arab Republic of Syria in late 1961 after the December 1 constitutional referendum of that year, and was increasingly unstable until the 1963 Ba'athist coup d'état, since which the Ba'ath Party has maintained its power. The SBI Apply Online service functions on a 24x7 basis. They too were subjugated by Assyria and the Hittites for centuries. [99] In July 2011, Army defectors declared the formation of the Free Syrian Army and began forming fighting units. During his reign, he focused on his home town of Philippopolis (modern day Shahba) and began many construction projects to improve the city, most of which were halted after his death. (, This page was last edited on 25 January 2021, at 02:14. Coordinates: .mw-parser-output .geo-default,.mw-parser-output .geo-dms,.mw-parser-output .geo-dec{display:inline}.mw-parser-output .geo-nondefault,.mw-parser-output .geo-multi-punct{display:none}.mw-parser-output .longitude,.mw-parser-output .latitude{white-space:nowrap}35°N 38°E / 35°N 38°E / 35; 38. [227] Druze number around 500,000, and concentrate mainly in the southern area of Jabal al-Druze. Since approximately 10,000 BC, Syria was one of the centers of Neolithic culture (known as Pre-Pottery Neolithic A) where agriculture and cattle breeding appeared for the first time in the world. Saudi Arabia Cuts Rates by 75bps. The earliest recorded indigenous civilization in the region was the Kingdom of Ebla[29] near present-day Idlib, northern Syria. Please read the following important information before accessing this Website: This Website is owned and operated by BANK ONE LIMITED and the use thereof indicate that you accept the Bank’s Terms and Conditions of Use. [citation needed] The only remaining land Syria has in the Golan is a strip of territory which contains the abandoned city of Quneitra, the governorate's de facto capital Madinat al-Baath and many small villages, mostly populated by Circassians such as Beer Ajam and Hader. [83] The coup led to a split within the original pan-Arab Ba'ath Party: one Iraqi-led ba'ath movement (ruled Iraq from 1968 to 2003) and one Syrian-led ba'ath movement was established. $15 to $25 for receiving money from an overseas bank account. [122], Analysts noted that the upcoming implementation of new heavy sanctions under the US Caesar Act could devastate the Syrian economy, ruin any chances of recovery, destroy regional stability, and do nothing but destabilize the entire region. 2020-06-01. Enter the information shown below and click 'Continue.' Agrarian reform measures were introduced into Syria which consisted of three interrelated programs: Legislation regulation the relationship between agriculture laborers and landowners: legislation governing the ownership and use of private and state domain land and directing the economic organization of peasants; and measures reorganizing agricultural production under state control. The government began to institute economic reforms aimed at liberalizing most markets, but those reforms were slow and ad hoc, and have been completely reversed since the outbreak of conflict in 2011. [224] Brazil is the first country in the Americas to offer humanitarian visas to Syrian refugees. [130] The legislature, the Peoples Council, is the body responsible for passing laws, approving government appropriations and debating policy. Some Syrian dishes also evolved from Turkish and French cooking: dishes like shish kebab, stuffed zucchini/courgette, and yabraʾ (stuffed grape leaves, the word yabraʾ deriving from the Turkish word yaprak, meaning leaf). [198] The following month, ISIS blew up a gas pipeline to Damascus that was used to generate heating and electricity in Damascus and Homs; "the name of its game for now is denial of key resources to the regime" an analyst stated. [180] Because of internet censorship laws, 13,000 internet activists were arrested between March 2011 and August 2012. Later in history when "the Nizaris faced renewed Frankish hostilities, they received timely assistance from the Ayyubids."[64]. One of the earliest written texts from Syria is a trading agreement between Vizier Ibrium of Ebla and an ambiguous kingdom called Abarsal c. 2300 BC. The main dishes that form Syrian cuisine are kibbeh, hummus, tabbouleh, fattoush, labneh, shawarma, mujaddara, shanklish, pastırma, sujuk and baklava. Syrian food mostly consists of Southern Mediterranean, Greek, and Southwest Asian dishes. Neither the Bank nor its directors, shareholders, agents, consultants, representatives, officers or employees shall be liable for any damages or losses resulting from your use or inability to use its Website or any information contained therein, including without limitation any direct or indirect, special, incidental, consequential or punitive damages whether arising out of contract, statute and tort or otherwise. [244], There are 6 state universities in Syria[245] and 15 private universities. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalists and the British forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate. 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